The human eye is an organ which reacts to light for several purposes.
Before you finish reading this sentence, approximately one hundred billion (100,000,000,000) operations will have been completed inside your eyes. However fantastic it may seem, you possess an example (two, in fact) of the Universe’s ultimate technology. No scientist has ever come close to fully grasping it, let alone inventing anything remotely similar.
Say: “It is He (Allah) Who brought you into being and gave you hearing, sight and hearts. What little thanks you show!” (Qur’an, 67: 23)
Say, “Have you considered: if Allah should take away your hearing and your sight and set a seal upon your hearts, which deity other than Allah could bring them [back] to you?” Look how we diversify the verses; then they [still] turn away.” (Qur’an, 6: 46)
Considering the eye’s complex structure and special function, it occupies only a very small volume of our body. Like a precious artifact kept in a safe, it is guarded by the skull to withstand injury from outside blows. The superbly designed protection is proportional to its vital purpose.
As a conscious sense organ, the eye allows vision. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including colour differentiation and the perception of depth. The human eye can distinguish about 10 million colours.
The eye is not properly a sphere, rather it is a fused two-piece unit. The smaller, less curved unit called the cornea, is linked to the larger unit called the sclera. The cornea and sclera are connected by a ring called the limbus. The iris and its black center, the pupil, are seen instead of the cornea due to the cornea’s transparency.
The eye is made up of three coats, enclosing three transparent structures. The outermost layer is composed of the cornea and sclera. The middle layer consists of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris. The innermost is the retina, which gets its circulation from the vessels of the choroid as well as the retinal vessels, which can be seen in an opthalmoscope.
Within these coats are the aqueous humor, the vitreous body, and the flexible lens. The aqueous humor is a clear fluid that is contained in two areas: the anterior chamber between the cornea and the iris and exposed area of the lens; and the posterior chamber, behind the iris and the rest. The lens is suspended to the ciliary body by the suspensory ligament (Zonule of Zinn), made up of fine transparent fibers. The vitreous body is a clear jelly that is much larger than the aqueous humor, and is bordered by the sclera, zonule, and lens. They are connected via the pupil.