In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes, are involved. The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female’s reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. The female needs a male to fertilize her egg, even though it is she who carries offspring through pregnancy and childbirth.
Both the male and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and the ability to have children. There are many such problems in men and women. Reproductive health problems can also be harmful to overall health and impair a person’s ability to enjoy a sexual relationship.
Your reproductive health is influenced by many factors. These include your age, lifestyle, habits, genetics, use of medicines and exposure to chemicals in the environment. Many problems of the reproductive system can be corrected.
The female reproductive system contains two main parts: the uterus, which hosts the developing fetus, produces vaginal and uterine secretions, and passes the male’s sperm through to the fallopian tubes; and the ovaries, which produce the female’s egg cells. These parts are internal; the vagina meets the external organs at the vulva, which includes the labia, clitoris and urethra. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the Fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the Fallopian tube into the uterus.
If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, the sperm penetrate and merge with the egg, fertilizing it. The fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. The zygote then implants itself in the wall of the uterus, where it begins the processes of embryogenesis and morphogenesis. When developed enough to survive outside the womb, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel the fetus through the birth canal, which is the vagina.
The ova are larger than sperm and are generally all created by birth. Approximately every month, a process of oogenesis matures one ovum to be sent down the Fallopian tube attached to its ovary in anticipation of fertilization. If not fertilized, this egg is flushed out of the system through menstruation.
Organs of the female reproductive system: A female’s internal reproductive organs are the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
The vagina is the place where semen from the male is deposited into the female’s body at the climax of sexual intercourse, commonly known as ejaculation. Around the vagina, pubic hair protects the vagina from infection and is a sign of puberty. The cervix is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. The uterus is the major female reproductive organ of humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina; the other is connected on both sides to the fallopian tubes. The uterus is a pear-shaped muscular organ. Its major function is to accept a fertilized ovum which becomes implanted into the endometrium, and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose. The fertilized ovum becomes an embryo, develops into a fetus and gestates until childbirth. If the egg does not embed in the wall of the uterus, a woman gets her period and the egg is flushed away. The Fallopian tubes are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female into the uterus. The ovaries are the place inside the female body where ova or eggs are produced.
Diseases and Disorders of the Female Reproductive System: Vulvovaginitis, Nonmenstrual vaginal bleeding, Ectopic Pregnancy, Ovarian tumors, Ovarian cysts, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Trichomonas vaginalis, Dysmenorrhea, Menorrhagia, Oligomenorrhea, Amenorrhea, Toxic shock syndrome, Candidasis, Cervical cancer, Ovarian cancer, Uterine cancer, Breast cancer.