Urinary system functions, organs and diseases

The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans it includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, the urethra, and the penis in males. The analogous organ in invertebrates is the nephridium.

Urinary system functions

Your body takes nutrients from food and uses them to maintain all bodily functions including energy and self-repair. After your body has taken what it needs from the food, waste products are left behind in the blood and in the bowel. The urinary system works with the lungs, skin, and intestines -all of which also excrete wastes- to keep the chemicals and water in your body balanced. Adults eliminate about a quart and a half of urine each day. The amount depends on many factors, especially the amounts of fluid and food a person consumes and how much fluid is lost through sweat and breathing. Certain types of medications can also affect the amount of urine eliminated.

The urinary system removes a type of waste called urea from your blood. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys.

Urinary system diseases

Problems in the urinary system can be caused by aging, illness, or injury.

Urologic disease can involve congenital or acquired dysfunction of the urinary system.

Kidney diseases are normally investigated and treated by nephrologists, while the specialty of urology deals with problems in the other organs. Gynecologists may deal with problems of incontinence in women.

The human body urinary system

Diseases of other bodily systems also have a direct effect on urogenital function. For instance it has been shown that protein released by the kidneys in diabetes mellitus sensitises the kidney to the damaging effects of hypertension.

Diabetes also can have a direct effect in urination due to peripheral neuropathies which occur in some individuals with poorly controlled diabetics.

Skeletal system functions and parts

The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. It serves as a scaffold which supports organs, anchors muscles, and protects organs such as the brain, lungs and heart.

The number of bones in the human skeletal system is a controversial topic. Humans are born with about 300 to 350 bones, however, many bones fuse together between birth and maturity. As a result an average adult skeleton consists of 208 bones. The number of bones varies according to the method used to derive the count. While some consider certain structures to be a single bone with multiple parts, others may see it as a single part with multiple bones. There are five general classifications of bones. These are Long bones, Short bones, Flat bones, Irregular bones, and Sesamoid bones. The human skeleton is composed of both fused and individual bones supported by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. It is a complex structure with two distinct divisions. These are the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.

Skeletal System Functions

The Skeletal System serves many important functions; it provides the shape and form for our bodies in addition to supporting, protecting, allowing bodily movement, producing blood for the body, and storing minerals. The Skeletal System serves as a framework for tissues and organs to attach themselves to. This system acts as a protective structure for vital organs. Major examples of this are the brain being protected by the skull and the lungs being protected by the rib cage.

The Human Skeleton

Located in long bones are two distinctions of bone marrow (yellow and red). The yellow marrow has fatty connective tissue and is found in the marrow cavity. During starvation, the body uses the fat in yellow marrow for energy. The red marrow of some bones is an important site for blood cell production, approximately 2.6 million red blood cells per second in order to replace existing cells that have been destroyed by the liver. Here all erythrocytes, platelets, and most leukocytes form in adults. From the red marrow, erythrocytes, platelets, and leukocytes migrate to the blood to do their special tasks.

Another function of bones is the storage of certain minerals. Calcium and phosphorus are among the main minerals being stored. The importance of this storage “device” helps to regulate mineral balance in the bloodstream. When the fluctuation of minerals is high, these minerals are stored in bone; when it is low it will be withdrawn from the bone.

Respiratory system functions, organs and diseases

The respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism. Respiration takes place in the respiratory organs called lungs. The passage of air into the lungs to supply the body with oxygen is known as inhalation, and the passage of air out of the lungs to expel carbon dioxide is known as exhalation; this process is collectively called breathing or ventilation.

Respiratory system functions

A respiratory system’s function is to allow gas exchange. The space between the alveoli and the capillaries, the anatomy or structure of the exchange system, and the precise physiological uses of the exchanged gases vary depending on the organism.

In humans, for example, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles. Molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively exchanged, by diffusion, between the gaseous external environment and the blood. This exchange process occurs in the alveolar region of the lungs.

Respiratory system diseases

The human body respiratory system

Disorders of the respiratory system can be classified into four general areas:

  • Obstructive conditions (e.g., emphysema, bronchitis, asthma)
  • Restrictive conditions (e.g., fibrosis, sarcoidosis, alveolar damage, pleural effusion)
  • Vascular diseases (e.g., pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension)
  • Infectious, environmental and other “diseases” (e.g., pneumonia, tuberculosis, asbestosis, particulate pollutants):

Coughing is of major importance, as it is the body’s main method to remove dust, mucus, saliva, and other debris from the lungs. Inability to cough can lead to infection. Deep breathing exercises may help keep finer structures of the lungs clear from particulate matter, etc.

Nervous system functions, organs and diseases

The nervous system is a network of specialized cells that communicate information about an organism’s surroundings and itself. It processes this information and causes reactions in other parts of the body. It is composed of neurons and other specialized cells called glial cells (plural form glia) that aid in the function of the neurons.

The nervous system is divided broadly into two categories: the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. Neurons generate and conduct impulses between and within the two systems. The peripheral nervous system is composed of sensory neurons and the neurons that connect them to the nerve cord, spinal cord and brain, which make up the central nervous system. In response to stimuli, sensory neurons generate and propagate signals to the central nervous system which then processes and conducts signals back to the muscles and glands.

Nervous tissue is composed of two main cell types: neurons and glial cells. Neurons transmit nerve messages. Glial cells are in direct contact with neurons and often surround them.

The human body Nervous system

The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system. Humans have about 100 billion neurons in their brain alone! While variable in size and shape, all neurons have three parts. Dendrites receive information from another cell and transmit the message to the cell body. The cell body contains the nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles typical of eukaryotic cells. The axon conducts messages away from the cell body.

Muscular system functions, organs and diseases

The muscular system is the largest system in the body. Muscles are located in practically every region of the human body.

The muscular system is made up of tissues that work with the skeletal system to control movement of the human body.

Muscular system functions

Muscles function is to produce force and cause motion. Muscles can cause either locomotion of the organism itself or movement of internal organs.

There are three distinct types of muscles: skeletal muscles, cardiac or heart muscles, and smooth muscles. Muscles provide strength, balance posture , movement and heat for the body to keep warm.

Cardiac and smooth muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought and is necessary for survival. Examples are the contraction of the heart and peristalsis which pushes food through the digestive system.

Skeletal muscle or “voluntary muscle” is anchored by tendons to bone and is used to effect skeletal movement such as locomotion and in maintaining posture. Though this postural control is generally maintained as a subconscious reflex, the muscles responsible react to conscious control like non-postural muscles. An average adult male is made up of 42% of skeletal muscle and an average adult female is made up of 36% (as a percentage of body mass).

The human body muscular system

Smooth muscle or “involuntary muscle” is found within the walls of organs and structures such as the esophagus, stomach, intestines, bronchi, uterus, urethra, bladder, blood vessels, and the arrector pili in the skin (in which it controls erection of body hair). Unlike skeletal muscle, smooth muscle is not under conscious control.

Cardiac muscle is also an “involuntary muscle” but is more akin in structure to skeletal muscle, and is found only in the heart.

There are approximately 639 skeletal muscles in the human body. There are three distinct types of muscles: cardiac or heart muscles, skeletal muscles, and smooth muscles.

Lymphatic system functions, organs and diseases

The lymphatic system filters fluid from around cells. It is an important part of the immune system. The lymphatic system consists of organs, ducts, and nodes.

Lymphatic system functions

The lymphatic system has three interrelated functions. It is absorb lipids from the intestine and transport them to the blood; collect and return interstitial fluid, including plasma protein to the blood, and thus help maintain fluid balance, defend the body against disease by producing lymphocytes.

Organs of lymphatic system

Lymph organs include the bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus.

Diseases and other problems of the lymphatic system can cause swelling and other symptoms. Problems with the system can impair the body’s ability to fight infections.

Lymphatic system diseases

The human body Lymphatic System

Diseases of the lymphatic system: Some common causes of swollen lymph nodes include infections, infectious mononucleosis, and cancer, e.g. Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and metastasis of cancerous cells via the lymphatic system. In elephantiasis, infection of the lymphatic vessels cause a thickening of the skin and enlargement of underlying tissues, especially in the legs and genitals. It is most commonly caused by a parasitic disease known as lymphatic filariasis. Lymphangiosarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor (soft tissue sarcoma), whereas lymphangioma is a benign tumor occurring frequently in association with Turner syndrome. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a benign tumor of the smooth muscles of the lymphatics that occurs in the lungs.

Integumentary system functions and diseases

The integumentary system is the organ system that protects the body from damage, comprising the skin and its appendages (including hair, scales, and nails). The integumentary system has a variety of functions; it may serve to waterproof, cushion and protect the deeper tissues, excrete wastes, regulate temperature and is the attachment site for sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure and temperature. In humans the integumentary system additionally provides vitamin D synthesis.

The integumentary system is the largest organ system. The skin is the largest organ in the body: 12-15% of body weight, with a surface area of 1-2 meters.

The skin covers the entire outer surface of the body. Structurally, the skin consists of two layers which differ in function, histological appearance and their embryological origin. Epidermis is formed by an epithelium and is of ectodermal origin. The underlying thicker layer, the dermis, consists of connective tissue and develops from the mesoderm. Beneath the two layers we find a subcutaneous layer of loose connective tissue, the hypodermis or subcutis, which binds the skin to underlying structures. Hair, nails and sweat and sebaceous glands are of epithelial origin and collectively called the appendages of the skin.

Epidermis: This is the top layer of skin made up of epithelial cells. It does not contain blood vessels. Its main job is protection, absorption of nutrients, and homeostasis.

Dermis: The dermis is the midlayer of skin, composing of loose collective tissues such as collagen with elastin arranged in a diffusely bundled and woven pattern. These layers serve to give elasticity to the integument, not allowing stretching and conferring flexibility, while also resisting distortions, wrinkling, and sagging.

Subdermis (Hypodermis): The subdermis is the layer of tissue directly underneath the dermis. It is mainly composed of connective and adipose tissue. Its physiological functions include insulation, the storage of energy, and aiding in the anchoring of the skin.

Integumentary system functions

Integumentary system

Functions of the integumentary system: The integumentary system has multiple roles in homeostasis. All body systems work in an interconnected manner to maintain the internal conditions essential to the function of the body. The skin has an important job of protecting the body and acts as the body’s first line of defense against infection, temperature change, and other challenges to homeostasis. Functions include:

  • Protect; the body’s internal living tissues and organs, against invasion by infectious organisms, the body from dehydration, the body against abrupt changes in temperature and protect the body against sunburns
  • Help excrete waste materials through perspiration
  • Act as a receptor for touch, pressure, pain, heat, and cold
  • Generate vitamin D through exposure to ultraviolet light
  • Store water, fat, glucose, and vitamin D
  • Participate in temperature regulation

Integumentary system diseases

Possible diseases and injuries to the human integumentary system include: Rash, Blister, Athlete’s foot, Infection, Sunburn, Skin cancer, Albinism, Acne, Herpes, Cold Sores…

The immune system – Functions, definition, anatomy, organs

Our bodies have enemies, which we are unable to see and may not even be aware to exist. We also have an army that expertly protects us against all forms of external threat and is constantly on guard: our “immune system!”

The immune system, which is made up of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs, defends people against germs and microorganisms every day.

The human body features: immune system

The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against attacks by “foreign” invaders.

Organs of immune system: tonsils and adenoids, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thymus, spleen, appendix and bone marrow.

Bone marrow, the soft tissue in the hollow center of bones, is the ultimate source of all blood cells, including lymphocytes. The thymus is a lymphoid organ that lies behind the breastbone.

Lymph nodes, which are located in many parts of the body, are lymphoid tissues that contain numerous specialized structures: T cells from the thymus concentrate in the paracortex; B cells develop in and around the germinal centers; Plasma cells occur in the medulla.

The Male reproductive system – Functions, definition, anatomy, disease

The human male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that are a part of the human reproductive process. In the case of men, these sex organs are located outside a man’s body, around the pelvic region.

The main male sex organs are the penis and the testes which produce semen and sperm, which as part of sexual intercourse fertilize an ovum in a woman’s body and the fertilized ovum (zygote) gradually develops into a fetus, which is later born as a child.

The human body Male Reproductive system

In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes, are involved. The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female’s reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the female and male reproductive systems are essential for reproduction.

The penis has a long shaft and enlarged tip called the glans penis. The penis is the male copulatory organ. When the male becomes sexually aroused, the penis becomes erect and ready for sexual intercourse. Erection is achieved because blood sinuses within the erectile tissue of the penis become filled with blood. The arteries of the penis are dilated while the veins are passively compressed so that blood flows into the erectile cartilage under pressure. The male penis is made of two different tissues. Cartilage is not in the penis.

Both the male and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and the ability to have children. There are many such problems in men and women. Reproductive health problems can also be harmful to overall health and impair a person’s ability to enjoy a sexual relationship.

Your reproductive health is influenced by many factors. These include your age, lifestyle, habits, genetics, use of medicines and exposure to chemicals in the environment. Many problems of the reproductive system can be corrected.

Penis Diseases: Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man’s sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include;

  • Erectile dysfunction – inability to get or keep an erection
  • Priapism – a painful erection that does not go away
  • Peyronie’s disease – bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump called a plaque
  • Balanitis – inflammation of the skin covering the head of the penis, most often in men and boys who have not been circumcised
  • Penile cancer – a rare form of cancer, highly curable when caught early

Testicular Disorders: Testicles, or testes, make male hormones and sperm. They are two egg-shaped organs inside the scrotum, the loose sac of skin behind the penis. Testes are suspended outside the abdominal cavity by the scrotum, a pouch of skin that keeps the testes close or far from the body at an optimal temperature for sperm development. It’s easy to injure your testicles because they are not protected by bones or muscles. Men and boys should wear athletic supporters when they play sports.

You should examine your testicles monthly and seek medical attention for lumps, redness, pain or other changes. Testicles can get inflamed or infected. They can also develop cancer. Testicular cancer is rare and highly treatable. It usually happens between the ages of 15 and 40.

The female reproductive system – Functions, definition, anatomy, disease

In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes, are involved. The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female’s reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. The female needs a male to fertilize her egg, even though it is she who carries offspring through pregnancy and childbirth.

The human body features

Both the male and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and the ability to have children. There are many such problems in men and women. Reproductive health problems can also be harmful to overall health and impair a person’s ability to enjoy a sexual relationship.

Your reproductive health is influenced by many factors. These include your age, lifestyle, habits, genetics, use of medicines and exposure to chemicals in the environment. Many problems of the reproductive system can be corrected.

The female reproductive system contains two main parts: the uterus, which hosts the developing fetus, produces vaginal and uterine secretions, and passes the male’s sperm through to the fallopian tubes; and the ovaries, which produce the female’s egg cells. These parts are internal; the vagina meets the external organs at the vulva, which includes the labia, clitoris and urethra. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the Fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the Fallopian tube into the uterus.

If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, the sperm penetrate and merge with the egg, fertilizing it. The fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. The zygote then implants itself in the wall of the uterus, where it begins the processes of embryogenesis and morphogenesis. When developed enough to survive outside the womb, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel the fetus through the birth canal, which is the vagina.

The ova are larger than sperm and are generally all created by birth. Approximately every month, a process of oogenesis matures one ovum to be sent down the Fallopian tube attached to its ovary in anticipation of fertilization. If not fertilized, this egg is flushed out of the system through menstruation.

Organs of the female reproductive system: A female’s internal reproductive organs are the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.

The vagina is the place where semen from the male is deposited into the female’s body at the climax of sexual intercourse, commonly known as ejaculation. Around the vagina, pubic hair protects the vagina from infection and is a sign of puberty. The cervix is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. The uterus is the major female reproductive organ of humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina; the other is connected on both sides to the fallopian tubes. The uterus is a pear-shaped muscular organ. Its major function is to accept a fertilized ovum which becomes implanted into the endometrium, and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose. The fertilized ovum becomes an embryo, develops into a fetus and gestates until childbirth. If the egg does not embed in the wall of the uterus, a woman gets her period and the egg is flushed away. The Fallopian tubes are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female into the uterus. The ovaries are the place inside the female body where ova or eggs are produced.

Diseases and Disorders of the Female Reproductive System: Vulvovaginitis, Nonmenstrual vaginal bleeding, Ectopic Pregnancy, Ovarian tumors, Ovarian cysts, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Trichomonas vaginalis, Dysmenorrhea, Menorrhagia, Oligomenorrhea, Amenorrhea, Toxic shock syndrome, Candidasis, Cervical cancer, Ovarian cancer, Uterine cancer, Breast cancer.